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In 2004, founding chief executive officer Steve Chang decided to split the responsibilities of CEO and chairman of the company. Company co-founder Eva Chen succeeded Steve Chang as chief executive officer of Trend Micro in January 2005. Chen had most recently served as the company's chief technology officer since 1996 and before that executive vice president since the company's founding in October 1989. Steve Chang retained his position as company chairman. In May, Trend Micro acquired Braintree, Massachusetts-based antispyware company InterMute for $15 million. Trend Micro had fully integrated InterMute's SpySubtract antispyware program into its antispyware product offerings by the end of that year. In June 2005 Trend Micro acquired Kelkea, a San Jose, California-based developer of antispam software. Kelkea developed Mail Abuse Prevention System (MAPS) and IP filtering software that allowed internet service providers to block spam and phishing scams. Kelkea chief executive officer Dave Rand was retained by Trend Micro as its chief technologist for content security.

Expert Forecasts for 2020

Rapid bioassays and ubiquitous RFID tagging, which nations at this level of S&T capacity can acquire as well, could be equally useful. Rapid bioassays would provide a means of ensur-ing that people can move safely across borders to conduct business, because it would allow governments to detect unintended transport of infectious disease more effectively. RFID tagging could enhance performance of retail industries, enabling greater control of inventories throughout the supply chain and making marketing more efficient. Contagious diseases can spread easily, making epidemics a significant threat. Infant mortality rates can exceed international standards, and life expectancies can be lower than desirable. Yet at the same time, many countries with this level of S&T capacity are approaching the point on the development ladder where they can begin to aspire to improve individual health as well. As in the scientifically lagging and developing countries, cheap solar energy, rural wireless communications, rapid bioassays, and ubiquitous RFID tagging could promote economic growth and international commerce in the scientifically proficient countries. In addition, these countries will be able to acquire quantum cryptography, which, in providing a means of trans-ferring information in a secure, reliable manner, could further aid economic development. This application would offer attractive benefits to banking and finance organizations, for example. Energy can be very costly in some countries in this group. At the same time, public awareness of the negative impacts of pollution and inefficient management of resources is often high. Consequently, citizens in nations at this level of S&T capacity frequently demand cleaner environments and more responsible consumption of natural assets. This can make reducing the use of resources and improving environmental health an important national objective. What is more, the ability to acquire a technology application does not equal the ability to implement it. Doing research or importing know-how is a necessary initial step. But success-ful implementation also depends on the drivers within a country that encourage technological innovation and the barriers that stand in its way. Such drivers and barriers reflect a country’s institutional, human, and physical capacity;1 its financial resources; and its social, political, and cultural environment. Each of these factors plays a part in determining a nation’s ability to put a new technology application into the hands of users, cause them to embrace it, and support its widespread use over time.