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Expert Forecasts for 2020

is taking a tremendous toll. Resources can present another major problem. In many nations at this level of S&T capacity, economic activities are further depleting already scarce natural resources and spoiling the environment. At the same time, energy prices are rising. For these reasons, it is imperative for many of them to use their resources more efficiently and improve the health of the environment. Rural wireless communications, rapid bioassays, filters and catalysts, cheap autonomous housing, ubiquitous RFID tagging, and quantum cryptography would help these proficient nations strengthen their military and warfighters. Military command, control, and commu- Consideration Could Head Off Problems and Maximize Benefits Public policy issues will need to be resolved before a country will be able to realize the full benefits of a technology application. Not all technology may be good or appropriate in every circumstance, and just because a country has the capacity to implement a technology application does not necessarily mean that it should. Ethical, safety, and public concerns will require care-ful analysis and consideration. Public policy issues will need to be debated in an environment that seeks to resolve conflicts. Such public debate, in addition to being based on sound data, will need to be inclusive and sensitive to the range of traditions, values, and cultures within a society. In some cases, issues will remain after the debate, slowing or even stopping technology implementation. Sometimes the reasons clearly will be good (e.g., when safety concerns cannot be adequately addressed), and sometimes the result will simply reflect collective decisionmak-ing determining what a particular society wants and does not want. • Filters and catalysts: Techniques and devices to effectively and reliably filter, purify, and decontaminate water locally using unskilled labor. • Hybrid vehicles: Automobiles available to the mass market with power systems that combine internal combustion and other power sources while recovering energy during braking.