Motor Trend Car Of The Year 2020 Contenders


Expert Forecasts for 2020

Generally, a country’s level of S&T capacity links up with indicators of economic and social development. By and large, countries with less S&T capacity also rank lower in the other two areas, while countries with more S&T capacity rank higher.5 Consequently, nations with different levels of S&T capacity often share similar problems and, as a result, tend to prioritize similar objectives. Promoting rural economic development, improving public health, and reducing the use of resources and improving environmental health—all basic development goals—are usually top concerns for countries on the lowest rungs of the development ladder. Individual Health as a National Priority Generally Follows Public Health Improving individual health is by necessity a secondary goal for some nations. A country can usually only make this objective a matter of real national concern if its public health system is already functioning well and its population enjoys a high standard of living. For this reason, it is typically only a first-order goal in scientifically advanced countries. Technology applications that could help reduce infant mortality rates and increase the average life expectancy—both measures of good public health—are much more important for countries lower on the development ladder. All five applications could also help these countries use fewer resources and improve environmental health. Cheap solar energy would provide energy without fuel combustion, reducing environmental emissions. Solar energy and cheap autonomous housing might help reduce the indoor air pollution generated by wood- and coal-burning stoves. Less reliance on firewood would promote healthy forests that would help control soil erosion; improve the quality of underground water; reduce sediment flows into rivers; and supply food, medicine, and con-struction materials. Rural wireless communications could help local and national governments monitor resources, environmental conditions, and pollution. GM crops would help conserve the natural resources used for agriculture and eliminate or reduce the magnitude of sources of pollution. Filters and catalysts would help conserve water and reduce waste streams. • Population and demographics: Overall size, average age, and growth rate of the population and the relative size of different age groups within a population. • Tissue engineering: The design and engineering of living tissue for implantation and replacement.