Expert Forecasts for 2020

• The enormous scientific and technological gap between the scientifically lagging countries of Africa, the Middle East, and Oceania and the scientifically advanced nations of North America, Western Europe, and Asia • Promote economic growth and international commerce. Individual Health as a National Priority Generally Follows Public Health Improving individual health is by necessity a secondary goal for some nations. A country can usually only make this objective a matter of real national concern if its public health system is already functioning well and its population enjoys a high standard of living. For this reason, it is typically only a first-order goal in scientifically advanced countries. Technology applications that could help reduce infant mortality rates and increase the average life expectancy—both measures of good public health—are much more important for countries lower on the development ladder. Rural wireless communications, rapid bioassays, filters and catalysts, cheap autonomous housing, ubiquitous RFID tagging, and quantum cryptography would help these proficient nations strengthen their military and warfighters. Military command, control, and commu- The benefits would be the same as for the scientifically developing countries. Quantum cryptography could protect critical data and networks from hackers and attackers. In addition, targeted drug delivery, also obtainable by the proficient nations, could expedite responses to chemical and biological attacks and minimize casualties.