Expert Forecasts for 2020

• The emergence of China and India as rising technological powers, with the scientifically proficient countries of Eastern Europe, as represented by Poland, not far behind • The significant gap that must be filled before the scientifically lagging nations can even reach the level of proficiency. As the global technology revolution proceeds over the next 15 years, it will follow a trajectory with certain defining characteristics. • Social values, public opinion, and politics: Religious beliefs, cultural customs, and social mores that affect how a technology application is perceived within a society; compatibility of a new application with dominant public opinions; and the politics and economics underlying debates about an application. • Education and literacy: Levels of general education and literacy adequate to make a population comfortable with technology and able to interface with it, and the availability of sufficiently high-quality postsecondary education and training in the sciences to stock a workforce comfortable with developing, using, and maintaining technology applications.