Acetic Acid Lewis Structure With Formal Charges

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Acetic acid is produced industrially both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol, explained below. The biological route accounts for only about 10% of world production, but it remains important for the production of vinegar because many food purity laws require vinegar used in foods to be of biological origin. Other processes are methyl formate isomerization, conversion of syngas to acetic acid, and gas phase oxidation of ethylene and ethanol. Acetic acid is often a side product of different reactions, i. e. during heterogeneous catalytic acrylic acid synthesis or fermentative lactic acid production. As of 2003–2005, total worldwide production of virgin acetic acid was estimated at 5 Mt/a (million tonnes per year), approximately half of which was produced in the United States. European production was approximately 1 Mt/a and declining, while Japanese production was 0. 7 Mt/a. Another 1. 5 Mt were recycled each year, bringing the total world market to 6. 5 Mt/a. Since then the global production has increased to 10. 7 Mt/a (in 2010), and further; however, a slowing in this increase in production is predicted. The two biggest producers of virgin acetic acid are Celanese and BP Chemicals. Other major producers include Millennium Chemicals, Sterling Chemicals, Samsung, Eastman, and Svensk Etanolkemi.